The shroud of Turin is stained with the blood of a torture victim, a study has suggested.

Researchers in Italy said the linen cloth, which is believed to have been wrapped around Christ’s body after he was crucified, contains “nanoparticles” of blood that are typical of someone who has experienced violent trauma.

Elvio Carlino, a researcher at the Institute of Crystallography in Bari, Italy, said the particles suggest “great suffering”.

Professor Giulio Fanti, of the University of Padua, added that the particles have a “peculiar structure, size and distribution” and the blood contains high levels of creatinine and ferritin, typically found in patients who have suffered traumas such as torture.

“Hence, the presence of these biological nanoparticles found during our experiments point to a violent death for the man wrapped in the Turin Shroud,” Professor Fanti said.

The particles “cannot be artefacts made over the centuries on the fabric of the Shroud”, he added.

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